According to AI, Males Dominate the Professional Workforce

Exploring gender bias in AI: Why does AI assume most leaders are men?

Recent research conducted by Legacy Communications explored how AI-generated images exhibit a troubling gender bias when tasked with creating workplace images.

To conduct the research, Legacy Communications used an AI natural language processing tool to generate prompts that were fed into an AI image generator to create images of typical professional roles.

The language processing tool was asked to describe different job roles, with the prompts being carefully crafted to avoid any potential bias that would influence the image. The prompt created by the AI NLP tool was then pasted into an AI image generation tool, which was asked to produce specific images based on the given prompt.

As an example, the researchers at Legacy asked the tool to give them a prompt to create an image of a CEO, which resulted in the following response from the AI:

“imagine a powerful and confident CEO in a modern office setting. The CEO is dressed in professional attire, exuding authority and leadership. The background features a stylish office with large windows, a sleek desk, and contemporary decor. Capture the essence of success and professionalism in the CEO’s demeanour.”

When given the prompt, the AI image generator created 2 images of a man as exhibited in the image below:

A male CEO sitting behind his desk wearing a suit.

Image 1: A male CEO is wearing professional attire, and is depicted sitting behind his desk in his office, overlooking the city.

On exploring further, the team at Legacy found that the AI image generation tool associated leadership roles such as “CEO”, “Boss”, “Entrepreneur”, “Pilot”, and “Manager” with white males, consistently depicting them in professional attire, wearing dark or neutral clothing.

Contrary to this, according to images generated by the AI, women are not occupying leadership positions especially when it comes to C Suite leadership positions.

When prompted to create an image of a CEO, CFO, COO & CIO the AI image tool created 2 images of men for each position.

Image 2: A male CFO is wearing professional attire and is depicted sitting at his desk studying some reports

The AI image generator only created female versions for the positions of CMO and CHRO. When prompted to create an image of a CMO it generated one male image and one female image, and in the case of a CHRO it generated 2 female images.

Image 3: A female CHRO is wearing professional attire and is depicted sitting behind her desk in an office with staff behind her.

In the USA women make up 47.4% of the workforce and 42% of managerial positions. The percentage of women in leadership roles falls to 42% in Ireland and falls even further to 30% in the UK.

But in an era where the focus is on breaking down gender barriers and promoting equality, even though it is a very new and modern technology, AI still has a tendency to reinforce stereotypical gender roles and presents a significant flaw in the system. 

A pattern emerges when the AI image generation tool generates images of women, where women are depicted in junior roles such as “Assistants” or “Receptionists”, and are rarely shown in senior management positions. 

A male lawyer sitting behind his desk wearing professional attire.

Image 4: When prompted to create an image of a lawyer the tool depicted a male lawyer wearing professional attire and is depicted sitting behind his desk in an office. (53% of lawyers in the UK are women, 52% of solicitors in Ireland are women, as well as 40% of women lawyers in the US)

A male judge is sitting behind a desk wearing a long back robe and glasses.

Image 5: When prompted to create an image of a judge, the tool created a male judge sitting behind his desk is wearing a black robe and glasses. (34% of US judges are female)

A male police officer wearing his uniform and bullet proof vest.

Image 6: When asked to imagine a police officer, the AI tool generateed a male police officer wearing his uniform and bulletproof vest, despite 35% of UK police officers identifying as female and 30% of the Irish Gardaí identifying as female

Another interesting pattern emerges where AI associates professions such as “Teacher” and “Nurse” as female-oriented, potentially implying that only women are capable of caring for people. This bias reflects societal perceptions that mainly link caring and nurturing roles to women. According to research, societal stereotypes often portray women as more communal and nurturing, aligning with roles such as teaching and nursing. On the flip side, men are frequently depicted as decision-makers in business-related matters and are assumed to be more eligible than women for leadership positions.

A female teacher smiling in class surrounded by her students.

Image 7: When prompted to create an image of a teacher, the tool generated a female teacher smiling in class surrounded by her students.


Image 8: When prompted to create an image of a doctor, the AI tool generates a male doctor who smiles softly at the camera from a hospital setting. (Almost half of doctors in the UK are female)

A female nurse smiling in hospital wearing stethoscope around her neck.

Image 9: By contrast, when asked to generate an image of a nurse, the AI image generator creates a female nurse smiling and wearing a stethoscope around her neck.

A male accountant wearing a blue shirt and working behind his desk.

Image 10: When asked to generate an image of an accountant, the AI image generator creates a male accountant happily reviewing reports. (In the US, 61% of accountants are women)

Legacy Communications conducted the research to explore if artificial intelligence portrays gender bias in the workplace. The findings reveal a troubling bias in AI-generated images, which perpetuates stereotypes and supports old-fashioned ideas about gender and race, despite the technology being so new and perceived as a next-generation technology.

Mícheál Brennan, Head of Search & Digital at Legacy Communications said: “We stumbled across this by accident while working on some basic concept images for an internal project. As we prompted the tool, we noticed a pattern in the way the AI image generator portrayed different professional roles, with gender and racial bias clearly being exhibited by the tool. We had assumed that because AI technology has emerged in the modern era, there would be no such issues, but after noticing the initial pattern we decided to explore it further, and we were astounded by the results, especially considering AI has often been accused of being too ‘woke’, but our research showed it to be the exact opposite, exhibiting massive gender and racial bias. 

At Legacy, we pride ourselves on not making assumptions, whether that’s assumptions about people or businesses or about anything. When building campaigns, we tend to explore everything, so when we noticed this pattern it felt like a natural piece of research to delve deeper into and when we explored it in depth, we were surprised to find that AI unfortunately can make a lot of assumptions, particularly in the case of women in the workplace, as exhibited by the images that were generated, especially when it came to leadership and managerial positions”

Also commenting on the findings, Lauren Duggan, Co-founder of Riley, a company that supplies Eco Friendly period products said: “The gender bias exhibited by AI in depicting leadership roles is not just a technological flaw; it has real-world implications. It can influence perceptions and decision-making, potentially hindering the progress we’ve made in breaking down gender barriers. As female entrepreneurs, we understand the importance of challenging these biases to create a more inclusive future.”

Jess Flack, CEO & Co-founder of Ubiquitous, an influencer marketing agency said: “This is exactly why representation matters. The fact is, AI is simply analysing tens of thousands of data points to deliver a consensus. It’s a mirror, devoid of subjectivity. So to me, this isn’t surprising – it’s a direct reflection of the stereotypes that have existed in culture/media for decades. I haven’t met a female or BIPOC executive who hasn’t struggled with impostor syndrome (myself included) because we didn’t grow up seeing people who look like us in leadership roles. We’ve made great strides over the last 10 years when it comes to representation (which will benefit future generations) but it’s up to us as a society to break the glass ceiling once and for all.”

The full list of AI images can be viewed below:

Agency executive

A female agency executive wearing an orance suit and is standing in an office.



A male architect wearing a white shirt and glasses.


Army general

A male army general sitting behid his desk working on some paperwork.



A male baker baking some bread.



A male bartender serving a drink.


Boss and their Assistant







Childcare worker










Construction worker




Dentist and their assistant











Fitness Trainer


Flight attendant


Graphic designer




IT Manager




















Pre-school teacher




Receptionist and their boss




Sales Manager




Shop Assistant


Shop Manager


Taxi Driver


Truck Driver



Maximise The Exit Value of Your Business: The Power of Strategic PR

Unlocking the secret to skyrocketing your business exit value lies not just in your balance sheets, but in the power of reputation—now recognised as a pivotal driver of business value, influencing a substantial portion of market capitalisation across leading companies (as highlighted by ‘The Reputation Dividend Report‘).

In the realm of startups, where every journey is fraught with challenges and competition, a well-crafted PR strategy can be the difference between a modest farewell and a grand exit. Here’s a guide to leveraging PR for maximising your business value upon exit.


1. Craft a Compelling Brand Story

Why It Matters: A compelling brand story does more than distinguish you from the competition; it connects on an emotional level with your audience, including potential buyers. This connection can turn into a powerful driver of value. 

How to Do It: 

  • Define Your Core Message: Start by clearly defining what your startup stands for. What problem are you solving? How does your journey resonate with a broader narrative? 
  • Be Authentic: Authenticity can’t be faked. Share real stories of challenges, victories, and lessons learnt. 
  • Engage Your Audience: Use multiple channels to tell your story. Blogs, social media, and press releases are your allies in weaving a narrative that engages and captivates.


2. Build Unshakeable Credibility

Why It Matters: Trust is the currency of business. Establishing your business as a credible, authoritative source in your industry can dramatically increase its attractiveness to potential acquirers. 

How to Do It: 

  • Showcase Expertise: Share your knowledge through thought leadership articles, speaking engagements, and participation in industry panels. 
  • Leverage Testimonials and Case Studies: Nothing builds credibility like the endorsement of satisfied customers and successful projects. 
  • Partner with Reputable Brands: Collaborations can lend their credibility to your business, enhancing your stature in the industry. 


3. Highlight Your Unique Selling Points

Why It Matters: Your Unique Selling Points (USPs) are what set you apart. In a sea of businesses, your USPs are your lighthouse, guiding potential buyers to your shore. 

How to Do It: 

  • Identify and Articulate Your USPs: Clearly define what makes your business unique. Is it your technology, your business model, or perhaps your team’s expertise? 
  • Create USP-focused Content: Develop content that highlights your USPs, from detailed blog posts to engaging videos. 
  • Use PR to Broadcast Your USPs: Get your USPs featured in media outlets, industry blogs, and social media channels. 


4. Shape Perceptions

Why It Matters: Perception shapes reality in the business world. A positive public image can enhance your value and make it a more attractive acquisition target. 

How to Do It: 

  • Monitor Your Online Reputation: Use tools to keep an eye on what’s being said about your business online. Address negative feedback promptly and professionally. 
  • Engage with Your Community: Be active in your industry community. Attend events, contribute to discussions, and support causes related to your field. 
  • Highlight Milestones and Achievements: Regularly share your business milestones and achievements through press releases and social media. 


5. Master Crisis Management

Why It Matters: How you handle crises can define your business. Effective crisis management preserves value by maintaining trust and credibility during turbulent times. 

How to Do It: 

  • Have a Plan: Develop a crisis communication plan before you need it. Know who will speak for your company and what channels you will use. 
  • Respond Quickly and Transparently: In times of crisis, a swift and transparent response can prevent damage to your reputation. 
  • Learn and Adapt: After a crisis, analyse what happened and how you can prevent future issues. This learning process is valuable and demonstrates maturity to potential buyers. 


6. Tell Your Story

Why It Matters: Every company has a unique story that can be a powerful asset when attracting potential acquirers. Your story can turn your vision and journey into tangible value. 

How to Do It: 

  • Craft a Narrative: Develop a narrative that includes your origin story, the obstacles you’ve overcome, and the successes you’ve achieved. 
  • Use Visuals: People love stories, but they love stories with visuals even more. Use images, infographics, and videos to tell your story in a more engaging way. 
  • Share Regularly: Consistency is key. Regular updates keep your audience and potential acquirers engaged with your journey. 


7. Boost Your Visibility

Why It Matters: Visibility can lead to opportunity. Keeping your business in the spotlight ensures it remains on the radar of industry players, influencers, and potential buyers. 

How to Do It: 

  • Engage with Media: Build relationships with journalists and bloggers in your industry. Pitch interesting stories and be available for comments on industry trends. 
  • Maximise Social Media: Use social media platforms to increase your visibility. Engage in conversations, share content, and participate in relevant hashtags. 
  • Host and Participate in Events: Whether it’s online webinars or industry conferences, being present and visible in these spaces increases your company’s profile.” 


8. Support Your Financial Story 

Why It Matters: While PR doesn’t fill your coffers directly, it amplifies your financial success stories, attracting buyers willing to pay a premium for a financially sound, popular, and respected company. 

How to Do It: 

  • Highlight Financial Milestones: Use PR to broadcast your financial achievements, such as funding rounds, revenue milestones, or profitability. 
  • Tie Achievements to Narrative: Connect your financial success stories back to your broader company narrative. This demonstrates not just growth but sustainable, value-driven growth. 
  • Use Data Effectively: Data can tell a compelling story. Use metrics and analytics to back up your success stories, making them more tangible and credible to potential acquirers. 

Remember, a strategic PR approach can be the difference between a good exit and a great one. As you build your business, build your story and reputation alongside it. When the time comes to exit, you’ll find that your efforts have significantly increased your company’s worth.  

Let’s make your exit story as remarkable as your business journey! 

What Does AI Mean for the Future of Digital PR?

What Does AI Mean for the Future of Digital PR?

“AI is a tool that should enhance and complement the work of PR professionals, rather than replace them entirely.”

As technology continues to advance at an unprecedented pace, artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming an increasingly integral part of our daily lives.

From voice assistants to autonomous vehicles, AI is transforming various industries, and digital PR is no exception. While it might be easy to focus on the negatives when it comes to AI and the workplace, it can also possibly revolutionize the digital PR industry if used correctly.

We have compiled a list of eight key ways that we predict AI might change the industry – and how to use it to your advantage.


Ideation Will Get Easier – If Used Correctly 💡

One of the key benefits of AI in Digital PR is its ability to streamline the ideation process. By analyzing vast amounts of data and consumer insights, AI-powered tools can help generate valuable ideas for PR campaigns and strategies.

Leveraging AI correctly can enable PR professionals to identify emerging trends, anticipate customer needs, and develop targeted and impactful PR campaigns. Ideation is often the hardest part – especially for digital PR professionals so any help is a big one in this case and AI definitely has the potential to get the creative juices flowing, but can’t be relied on entirely.


Learning New Skills Can Also Become Easier 🤔

AI technology not only assists with generating ideas but also facilitates the process of acquiring new skills.

With AI-powered training platforms, PR practitioners can access personalized learning experiences, allowing them to upskill and stay up-to-date with the latest industry trends – and quickly learn information about their various clients’ areas of expertise. This ensures that PR professionals can adapt to the evolving digital landscape and stay ahead of the competition.


It’s Also Great for Solving Simple Equations 📐

When marketers are expected to solve complex mathematical equations – things can get tricky fairly fast. While Digital PRs may be experts at creativity, the majority aren’t experts when it comes to maths, statistics or percentages – However, between indexes and data sets, math and digital PR do tend to go hand in hand.
AI can be particularly helpful in handling routine calculations and data analysis. By automating mundane tasks, such as data processing or statistical analysis, AI enables PR practitioners to focus their time and energy on more strategic and creative aspects of their work.


It Could Be Useful for Data Entry in the Future Too 💻

Data entry is an essential but often time-consuming task in Digital PR. AI technology has the potential to automate this process by extracting and categorizing relevant information from various sources. By automating data entry, AI may allow PR professionals to save time, reduce human error, and allocate their efforts toward more creative activities.


AI Is Also Helpful for Writing Press Releases ✏️

Writing compelling press releases is a crucial aspect of Digital PR. AI-powered writing tools can assist PR professionals in crafting well-structured and engaging content.

By leveraging natural language processing and machine learning algorithms, these tools can suggest improvements, provide grammar and style suggestions, and ensure that press releases are optimized for maximum impact (and links) for your clients.


And It Can Even Help the Outreach Process Too ✉️

AI technology can also revolutionize the outreach process in Digital PR. AI-powered tools can analyze vast amounts of data to identify potential influencers, journalists, or media outlets relevant to a specific campaign.

Additionally, AI may be able to assist in personalizing outreach messages, increasing the likelihood of building meaningful connections and securing media coverage. However, it is essential to tread carefully and maintain a human touch in communication to ensure genuine and authentic relationships with media professionals – especially considering we are a LONG way away from AI being able to generate media lists or fully automate outreach.


Tread Carefully with How You Use It Though 🚩

While the potential benefits of AI in Digital PR are significant, it is crucial to approach its implementation with caution. AI is a tool that should enhance and complement the work of PR professionals, rather than replace them entirely.

Human intuition, creativity, and relationship-building skills remain irreplaceable in the world of PR. It is essential to strike a balance between utilizing AI technology and maintaining a human-centric approach to ensure the most effective PR strategies, both in digital and traditional PR, as well as other careers.


So, Are We Likely to Be Replaced by Robots Soon? 🤖

The fear of being replaced by robots is a common concern in many industries, including PR. However, the role of AI in Digital PR should be seen as an opportunity rather than a threat.

While AI can automate certain tasks and improve efficiency, it cannot replicate the unique qualities that human PR professionals bring to the table. The human touch, empathy, and the ability to understand and adapt to complex situations are invaluable assets that AI can’t fully replicate.


In conclusion:

AI offers tremendous potential for the future of Digital PR. By leveraging AI-powered tools, PR professionals can streamline ideation, acquire new skills, automate routine tasks, improve content creation, and enhance the outreach process.

However, it is essential to approach AI implementation carefully, ensuring that human intuition and creativity remain at the forefront. As long as PR professionals embrace AI as a valuable assistant rather than a replacement, we can unlock new possibilities and thrive in the ever-evolving digital landscape.


Heathrow Airport likely most stressful airport in Europe

From sentiment scores and the number of delays to luggage, security and even WiFi ratings – here are which European airports are causing passengers the most stress.

With many European airports coming under fire over recent months for increased delays due to staffing shortages, The Digital PR hub at Legacy Communications has analysed Europe’s busiest airports to find out which are most likely to stress you out this Easter.

Legacy combed through over 10,000 passenger reviews, 2,500 tweets, and hours of flight data to gauge which airports are likely to cause the biggest bump in blood pressure amid recent scenes at airports throughout Europe with London’s Heathrow Airport landing in the top spot.

Also in the top three was Dublin Airport which has come under fire recently for delays due to staff shortages and Manchester airport which just saw its managing director step down over similar issues.

To get an overall stress score Legacy analysed the annual number of passengers, rate of delays, social media sentiment and passenger reviews to figure out which of Europe’s airports are the most stress-inducing.

Another of London’s airports, Gatwick, also ranked in seventh place of the overall most stressful airport list, with London’s Stansted also breaking the top fifteen at thirteenth place.

Meanwhile, the only one of London’s airports to crack the top fifteen in passenger satisfaction reviews for WiFi, check-in, security and more was Heathrow with a score of 78%.

Heathrow also ranked number one in negative sentiment social media analysis with a score of -263. Meanwhile, Gatwick landed itself in third place for overall flight delays with a score of 96.17.


Overall Most Stressful Airports Top 25:

Rank Airport City Country Tensi Score Delay Rate Annual Passengers Total Stress Score
1 Heathrow Airport London United Kingdom -263 95.43 78,014,598 145.4766667
2 Dublin Airport Dublin Ireland -221 94.83 29,582,321 114.9433333
3 Manchester Airport Manchester United Kingdom -217 96.88 27,901,708 113.6266667
4 Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport Madrid Spain -170 93.47 53,386,075 105.49
5 Frankfurt am Main International Airport Frankfurt Germany -156 92.85 64,500,386 104.2833333
6 Charles de Gaulle International Airport Paris France -141 96.51 69,471,442 102.17
7 Gatwick Airport London United Kingdom -165 96.17 45,561,694 102.0566667
8 Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Amsterdam Netherlands -145 91.38 68,515,425 101.46
9 Munich Airport Munich Germany -155 88.91 44,577,241 95.97
10 Istanbul Atatürk Airport Istanbul Turkey -128 93.75 63,859,785 94.91666667
11 Barcelona–El Prat Airport Barcelona Spain -125 92.18 47,262,826 88.06
12 Lisbon Portela Airport Lisbon Portugal -138 95.91 26,669,755 86.63666667
13 London Stansted Airport London United Kingdom -142 92.51 25,904,573 86.50333333
14 Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport Rome Italy -106 87.95 40,968,756 77.98333333
15 Vienna International Airport Vienna Austria -110 95.12 24,392,805 76.37333333
16 Palma De Mallorca Airport Palma de Mallorca Spain -125 77.03 27,970,655 76.34333333
17 Düsseldorf International Airport Duesseldorf Germany -115 85.64 24,640,564 74.88
18 Oslo Airport, Gardermoen Oslo Norway -111 85.81 27,482,315 74.60333333
19 Brussels Airport Brussels Belgium -113 86.78 24,783,911 74.59333333
20 Zürich Airport Zurich Switzerland -105 87.12 29,396,094 73.70666667
21 Copenhagen Airport Copenhagen Denmark -102 89.86 29,177,833 73.62
22 Stockholm Arlanda Airport Stockholm Sweden -105 85.61 26,642,034 72.20333333
23 Milan–Malpensa Airport Milano Italy -111 82.02 22,169,167 71.67333333
24 Athens International Airport Athens Greece -110 74.55 21,737,787 68.51666667
25 Antalya Airport Antalya Turkey -121 54.04 25,931,659 66.68

Sentiment Analysis Stress Score Top Ten:

Rank Airport Sentiment Score
1 Heathrow Airport -263
2 Dublin Airport -221
3 Manchester Airport -217
4 Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport -170
5 Gatwick Airport -165
6 Frankfurt am Main International Airport -156
7 Munich Airport -155
8 Amsterdam Airport Schiphol -145
9 London Stansted Airport -142
10 Charles de Gaulle International Airport -141

  Most Delayed Airports Top Ten:

Rank Airport State Country Delay rate %
1 Manchester Airport Manchester United Kingdom 96.88
2 Charles de Gaulle International Airport Paris France 96.51
3 Gatwick Airport London United Kingdom 96.17
4 Lisbon Portela Airport Lisbon Portugal 95.91
5 Heathrow Airport London United Kingdom 95.43
6 Vienna International Airport Vienna Austria 95.12
7 Dublin Airport Dublin Ireland 94.83
8 Istanbul Atatürk Airport Istanbul Turkey 93.75
9 Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport Madrid Spain 93.47
10 Frankfurt am Main International Airport Frankfurt Germany 92.85

Passenger Satisfaction Reviews Top 25:

Rank Airports Getting to Airport Check-in Terminal facilities Security Check WiFi Food and retail services Lounge Immigration/customs Baggage claim Total score
1 Istanbul Atatürk Airport 84% 88% 89% 87% 71% 85% 87% 86% 89% 85%
2 Zürich Airport 89% 87% 86% 75% 86% 80% 76% 83% 80% 82%
3 Amsterdam Airport Schiphol 88% 86% 84% 86% 81% 82% 80% 76% 75% 82%
4 Vienna International Airport 88% 81% 86% 85% 85% 76% 72% 81% 79% 81%
5 Munich Airport 79% 84% 83% 86% 78% 80% 79% 74% 76% 80%
6 Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport 85% 83% 82% 81% 71% 76% 78% 74% 75% 78%
7 Heathrow Airport 82% 83% 82% 80% 74% 78% 74% 75% 75% 78%
8 Athens International Airport 80% 82% 78% 74% 83% 75% 70% 75% 76% 77%
9 Frankfurt am Main International Airport 83% 83% 80% 76% 75% 76% 72% 75% 71% 77%
10 Copenhagen Airport 85% 81% 83% 75% 80% 76% 67% 74% 67% 76%
11 Palma De Mallorca Airport 82% 81% 79% 70% 83% 76% 66% 75% 76% 76%
12 Barcelona–El Prat Airport 84% 81% 80% 67% 80% 75% 68% 74% 73% 76%
13 Dublin Airport 81% 81% 77% 78% 77% 74% 64% 76% 72% 76%
14 Oslo Airport, Gardermoen 85% 83% 80% 78% 73% 69% 73% 65% 73% 75%
15 Lisbon Portela Airport 85% 79% 78% 75% 68% 73% 75% 67% 72% 75%
16 Gatwick Airport 80% 81% 77% 81% 65% 74% 64% 75% 72% 74%
17 Brussels Airport 80% 82% 81% 78% 69% 71% 72% 65% 67% 74%
18 Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport 77% 77% 78% 80% 71% 74% 66% 70% 67% 73%
19 Düsseldorf International Airport 83% 82% 76% 78% 64% 73% 71% 68% 64% 73%
20 Stockholm Arlanda Airport 79% 78% 76% 72% 69% 68% 71% 61% 67% 71%
21 Charles de Gaulle International Airport 74% 77% 73% 75% 70% 68% 65% 70% 68% 71%
22 Antalya Airport 81% 76% 77% 74% 48% 73% 68% 74% 63% 70%
23 Milan–Malpensa Airport 75% 70% 76% 62% 75% 68% 59% 68% 66% 69%
24 Manchester Airport 78% 76% 67% 69% 62% 67% 67% 66% 62% 68%
25 London Stansted Airport 73% 73% 70% 70% 58% 69% 69% 66% 66% 68%